List Of Best Smartphones Under Rs. 10000 In India

Expensive smartphone have the best features and specifications but budget phones are the real king in terms of sales volume. Many more Indians wants to buy new smartphone because of affordable data. These days even budget segment comes with great features and specification like Full HD Display, Higher Ram, High Resolution Cameras, Increased Internal Storage. We have created a list of best mobiles under 10000 which every Indian can buy.

Take a look at our picks for the best phone under 10000

Realme 3 Pro


realme 3 pro price
Realme 3 Pro
Display- 6.30-inch, 1080x2340 pixels
Processor- Qualcomm Snapdragon 710
RAM- 6GB
Storage- 128GB
Battery- 4045mAh
Rear Camera- 16+ 5-megapixel
Front Camera- 25-megapixel
Price- Rs. 8400

Realme 5


Realme 5 price
Realme 5
Display- 6.50-inch, 720x1600 pixels
Processor- Qualcomm Snapdragon 665 AIE
RAM- 4GB
Storage- 128GB
Battery- 5000mAh
Rear Camera- 12+ 8+ 2+ 2-megapixel
Front Camera- 13-megapixel
Price- Rs. 8990

Xiaomi Redmi Note 7S


Xiaomi Redmi Note 7S price
Xiaomi Redmi Note 7S
Display- 6.30-inch, 1080x2340 pixels
Processor- Qualcomm Snapdragon 660
RAM- 3GB
Storage- 32GB
Battery- 4000mAh
Rear Camera- 48+ 5-megapixel
Front Camera- 13-megapixel
Price- Rs. 8999

Samsung Galaxy M30


Samsung Galaxy M30 price
Samsung Galaxy M30
Display- 6.40-inch, 1080x2340 pixels
Processor- Samsung Exynos 7904
RAM- 4GB
Storage- 64GB
Battery- 5000mAh
Rear Camera- 13+ 5+ 5-megapixel
Front Camera- 16-megapixel
Price- Rs. 9999


Realme 5S

Realme 5S price
Realme 5S

Display- 6.50-inch, 720x1600 pixels
Processor- Qualcomm Snapdragon 665
RAM- 4GB
Storage- 128GB
Battery- 5000mAh
Rear Camera- 48+ 8+ 2+ 2-megapixel
Front Camera- 13-megapixel
Price- Rs. 9999

Xiaomi Redmi Note 7

Xiaomi Redmi Note 7 price
Xiaomi Redmi Note 7

Display- 6.30-inch, 1080x2340 pixels
Processor- Snapdragon 660 AIE
RAM- 4GB
Storage- 64GB
Battery- 4000mAh
Rear Camera- 12+ 2-megapixel
Front Camera- 13-megapixel
Price- Rs. 9499

Samsung Galaxy M20

Samsung Galaxy M20 price
Samsung Galaxy M20

Display- 6.30-inch, 1080x2340 pixels
Processor - Samsung Exynos 7904
RAM- 3GB
Storage- 32GB
Battery - 5000mAh
Rear Camera- 13+ 5-megapixel
Front Camera- 8-megapixel
Price- Rs. 9999

Asus ZenFone Max Pro M2

Asus ZenFone Max Pro M2 price
Asus ZenFone Max Pro M2

Display- 6.26-inch, 1080x2280 pixels
Processor- Qualcomm Snapdragon 660
RAM- 4GB
Storage- 64GB
Battery- 5000mAh
Rear Camera- 12+ 5-megapixel
Front Camera- 13-megapixel
Price- Rs. 9999

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Most popular global mobile messenger apps (Part 1)

Our smartphones enable us instant communication with our family, friends, and work colleagues, but the built-in options in our phones aren’t always the best. Messaging apps have grown to provide rich services offering all kinds of interactions with others, from free text messaging, video & voice calling, photo, video and file sharing with the added benefit of encryption. We’ve tested out a lot of different options, so here are some of the most popular global mobile messenger apps for 2020, based on number of monthly active users, you will find on both Android and iOS.

messenger
Most popular global mobile messenger apps

List Of Most popular global mobile messenger apps:


1). WhatsApp

WhatsApp Web
WhatsApp


WhatsApp Messenger is an instant messaging and Voice over IP (VoIP) service. The application allows users to send text messages, voice calls, video calls, images and other media, documents. The app runs from a mobile device and desktop computers. Originally users could only communicate with other users individually or in groups of individual users, but in September 2017 WhatsApp announced a forthcoming business platform which will enable companies to provide customer service to users at scale.

2). Facebook Messenger

Messenger
FB Messenger


Facebook Messenger is an instant messaging service and software application. Originally developed as Facebook Chat in 2008, the company revamped its messaging service in 2010, and subsequently released standalone iOS and Android apps in August 2011. Over the years, Facebook has released new apps on a variety of different operating systems, launched a dedicated website interface, and separated the messaging functionality from the main Facebook app, requiring users to use the web interface or download one of the standalone apps. Users can send messages and exchange photos, videos, stickers, audio, and files, as well as react to other users' messages and interact with bots. The service also supports voice and video calling. The standalone apps support using multiple accounts, conversations with optional end-to-end encryption, and playing games.

You may also like Top 5 Best Android Apps


3). WeChat

wechat web
WeChat


WeChat is a Chinese multi-purpose social media mobile application software developed by Tencent. It was first released in 2011, and by 2017 it was one of the largest standalone mobile apps by monthly active users, with over 980 million monthly active users. It has been called China's "App For Everything" and a "Super App" because of its wide range of functions and platforms. In addition to China, it is also the most popular messaging app in Bhutan. Wechat is known for its Mini Programs feature which incorporates many different functions and programs developed from Tencent and independent developers, and has been consistently updated. In January 2018, Wechat announced a record of 580,000 mini-programs in its feature. Recently, Wechat Games have received huge popularity, with its "Jump Jump" game attaining 100 million daily active users in just two weeks after its launch, as of January 2018.

4.) Tencet QQ

qq messenger
Tencent QQ


Tencent QQ is an instant messaging software service developed by the Chinese company Tencent Holdings Limited. QQ also offers services that provide online social games, music, shopping, microblogging, movies, and group and voice chat software. The logo of the software is a small penguin wearing a red scarf. As of April 2014, over 200 million simultaneous online QQ users were recorded. At the end of June 2016, there were 899 million active QQ accounts.
Official Tencent QQ Website

5). SnapChat

snapchat app
SnapChat


Snapchat is an image messaging and multimedia mobile application created by Evan Spiegel, Bobby Murphy, and Reggie Brown, former students at Stanford University, and developed by Snap Inc., originally Snapchat Inc. One of the principal concepts of Snapchat is that pictures and messages are only available for a short time before they become inaccessible. The app has evolved from originally focusing on person-to-person photo sharing to presently featuring "Stories" of 24-hour chronological content, along with "Discover" to let brands show ad-supported short-form entertainment. Snapchat has become notable for representing a new, mobile-first direction for social media, and places significant emphasis on users interacting with virtual stickers and augmented reality objects. As of late 2017, Snapchat has 178 million daily active users.

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Facebook Messenger removed option to sign up with mobile number, now requires Facebook account

messenger
facebook messenger sign up with mobile number


Facebook has now made it mandatory requirement to sign up with a Facebook account and has removed the option to sign up with mobile number. Earlier, users can sign up with mobile number or a Facebook account for both Messenger and Messenger Lite.

Venturebeat confirmed the change by Facebook in an article. A spokesperson has reportedly told Venturebeat that new users of Messenger will require a Facebook account to chat with friend and close connections. They also noted that most current users already have signed into their Facebook account when using the app and that nothing will happen to those users who have been using Messenger without an account.

The change is likely part of Facebook’s strategy of unification of its three major messaging services, Messenger, WhatsApp and Instagram. Facebook has steadily been introducing its name throughout the app as recently it made an update to these three apps. Facebook is also reported working on integrating and unifying the background infrastructure that is running these apps.

However the change has not been completely smooth as some users on Reddit have reported that their account access has been restricted, suggesting that the app has some bugs with this change.

OPPO Reno3 5G with quad rear cameras, 6.4-inch FHD+ AMOLED display, MediaTek Dimensity 1000L, up to 12GB RAM announced

OPPO Reno3 5G price
OPPO Reno3 5G

Oppo just announced its most waited phone Reno3 5G in an event in China. The Reno3 5G features a 6.4-inch waterdrop notch AMOLED screen display with high screen-to-body ratio, is powered by MediaTek Dimensity 1000L with up to 12GB of RAM, pack a 4025mAh battery, weighs 181 grams and features 7.96mm slim body.
         This phone pack quad rear cameras, run ColorOS 7 based on Android 10 out of the box, feature a glass back with a gradient design and have support for 5G standalone and non-stand alone (SA/NSA) sub-6GHz networks.

OPPO Reno3 5G specifications

-Android 10 with ColorOS 7.0
-64MP rear camera with LED flash, 8MP 116-degree Ultra Wide Lens with f/2.2 aperture, 2MP macro and 2MP mono lens with f/2.4 aperture
-32MP front-facing camera with f/2.4 aperture
-6.4-inch (2400 × 1080 pixels) Full HD+ 20:9 aspect ratio AMOLED display with
-Octa Core Dimensity 1000L 7nm processor with Mali-G77 MC9 GPU
-8GB / 12GB LPDDR4X RAM, 128GB  storage
-Dual SIM
-In-display fingerprint sensor
-3.5mm audio jack, Dolby Atmos
-Dimensions: 160.3×74.3×7.96mm; Weight: 181g
-5G SA/ NSA, Dual 4G VoLTE, WiFi 802.11 ac (2.4GHz + 5GHz), Bluetooth 5, GPS/GLONASS/Beidou, NFC, USB Type-C
-4025mAh (Typical) / 3935mAh (minimum) battery with 30W VOOC 4.0 fast charging

The Reno3 is priced at 3399 yuan (US$ 485 / Rs. 34,600 approx.) for the 8GB RAM with 128GB storage and the 12GB RAM with 128GB storage version costs 3699 yuan (US$ 528 / Rs. 37,650 approx.)

OPPO Reno3 Pro 5G with quad rear cameras, 6.5-inch FHD+ 90Hz AMOLED display, Snapdragon 765G, up to 12GB RAM announced

Oppo Reno3 Pro 5G price
Oppo Reno3 Pro 5G

Oppo just announced its most waited phone Reno3 Pro 5G in an event in China. The Reno3 Pro 5G features a 6.5-inch FHD+ AMOLED 90Hz punch-hole display with 93.4% screen-to-body ratio, is powered by Snapdragon 765G with up to 12GB of RAM, pack a 4025mAh battery, weighs 180 grams and features 7.7mm slim body.
         This phone pack quad rear cameras, run ColorOS 7 based on Android 10 out of the box, feature a glass back with a gradient design and have support for 5G standalone and non-stand alone (SA/NSA) sub-6GHz networks.

OPPO Reno3 Pro 5G specifications

-Android 10 with ColorOS 7.0
-48MP rear camera with Sony IMX586 sensor, f/1.7 aperture, OIS, LED flash, 8MP 116-degree Ultra Wide Lens with f/2.2 aperture, 13MP telephoto lens with f/2.4 aperture for 5x Hybrid Optical Zoom, 20X digital zoom, 2MP mono lens with f/2.4 aperture
-32MP front-facing camera with f/2.4 aperture
-6.5-inch (2400 × 1080 pixels) Full HD+ 20:9 aspect ratio 90Hz AMOLED display with 97% NTSC color gamut, 500nit brightness, Corning Gorilla Glass 5 protection
-Octa Core (1 x 2.4GHz + 1 x 2.2GHz + 6 x 1.8GHz Kryo 475 CPUs) Snapdragon 765G 7nm EUV Mobile Platform with Adreno 620 GPU
-8GB LPDDR4X RAM with 128GB  storage / 12GB LPDDR4X RAM with 256GB  storage
-Dual SIM
-In-display fingerprint sensor
-3.5mm audio jack, Dolby Atmos, dual speakers
-Dimensions: 159.4×72.4×7.7mm; Weight: 172g
-5G SA/ NSA, Dual 4G VoLTE, WiFi 802.11 ac (2.4GHz + 5GHz), Bluetooth 5, GPS/GLONASS/Beidou, NFC, USB Type-C
-4020mAh (Typical) / 3935mAh (minimum) battery with 30W 

Reno3 Pro 5G is priced at 3999 yuan (US$ 571 / Rs. 40,705 approx.) for the 8GB RAM with 128GB storage and the 12GB RAM with 128GB storage version costs 4499 yuan (US$ 640 / Rs. 45,795 approx.). Both these will be available in China starting from December 31.

Top 5 Free And Best Android Apps (Part-1)

Hello friends, in this post we are going to talk about Top 5 BEST NEW ANDROID APPS that will be useful for you. So if you want to know about these BEST ANDROID APPS then read till the end of this post.

play store app
Top 5 Best Android Apps


Best Android Apps


1). WAPunch

WAPunch app
WAPunch
In WAPunch app you will find different features such as: - when you shake your phone then your WhatsApp will open, you can save the WhatsApp status also, any many more features you will get in WAPunch app.

WAPunch features: -

WhatsApp Bubble
WhatsApp Pause
WhatsApp Cleaner
WhatsApp Shortcut
Prank Chat
Status Saver
Square Fit Photo
View Deleted
Message Unsaved Number
Walk & Chat
Ascil Faces


2). UnApp

UnApp app
UnApp
When we uninstalling apps one by one then it takes enough time but we can save this time by using UnApp which gives us feature to uninstall many apps together. You need to root your phone to use this app.


3). WAStickerApps

WAStickerApps app
WAStickerApps
Just a few days ago sticker feature has been released to us by WhatsApp. Limited stickers are available only in WhatsApp, but in Sticker Store - WAStickerApps You will get lots of stickers. Apart from this, in this app you will find the category accordingly, stickers are available such as: - PUBG, Harry Potter, Deadpool Etc. And many many more. You can easily add all these stickers In WhatsApp and send it to your friends.


4). Rembo

Rembo app
Rembo
Rembo app is a reminder app which is different to all other reminder apps. You have to chat with app to set reminder just like google assistant. After setting reminder, this app gives you reminder by calling you. In this app you can set all reminders such as: - Wake Up, Drink Water, To Do List Meeting etc.

5) AutoCaptions

AutoCaptions app
AutoCaptions
If you are a frequent user of Instagram then this app is very useful for you. You can find Best Captions For Instagram easily by Auto Caption App. Apart from this it will suggest you Hashtags also.

If you want another part of Top 5 Free And Best Android Apps then please like, comment and share our post.

Oppo launches two new smartphones, know price and features

China's smartphone company Oppo (Oppo) has launched two new smartphones. These smartphones have just been launched by the company in China. Among the smartphones launched, Oppo A91 is a mid range smartphone while Oppo A8 is a budget friendly smartphone. Both smartphones have a large display and both these smartphones run on Android 9 Pie. Let's know what features are available in these two smartphones.

Oppo A8 price
Oppo A91 and Oppo A8

Price and availability

In China, the price of Oppo A91 is 1,999 yuan i.e. around 20,000 rupees. The price of Oppo A8 is 1,199 yuan i.e. about 12,000 rupees. Currently, no information has been received from the company about the launch of these smartphones in India.

Features of Oppo A91

This phone of Oppo has a 6.4-inch Full HD + AMOLED display. The screen to body ratio of the phone is 90.7%. DC dimming technology has been provided in the phone for eye protection. These display fingerprint sensor has been given in the phone. The phone has a 4,025mAh battery. VOOC 4.0 fast charging has been given in this phone.

Camera, Processor, RAM, Storage and Others

The company claims that this smartphone will be charged 50 percent in 30 minutes. The phone has a MediaTek Helio P70 processor. The phone is available with 8GB RAM + 128GB storage. The phone comes with Color OS 6.1 based on Android 9.1. The phone's triple rear camera has a 48MP main camera. Apart from this, 8MP ultraviolet lens and 2 megapixel macro lens have been given in the rear of the phone. The fourth camera in the quad camera setup is 2MP. The phone has a 16MP front camera for selfie.

OPPO A8 Features

This phone has a 6.5-inch HD + display 19: 9 aspect ratio. This phone comes with MediaTek Helio P35 processor. The phone has 4GB RAM and 128GB internal storage. The phone has a triple rear camera setup of 12MP + 2MP + 2MP. The phone has an 8MP camera for selfie. The fingerprint sensor is given in the rear of the phone. The phone has a battery of 4,230mAh. The phone works on Android 9.0 out of the box.

LG G8X ThinQ launched in India, equipped with detachable screen and 32 megapixel selfie camera

LG has launched LG G8X ThinQ smartphone in the Indian market. The phone LG comes with two screens. Actually, this phone has a detachable secondary screen. The phone was first launched at IFA 2019. Now it has come in the Indian market. The LG Dual Screen has a 2.1-inch cover display for notifications, time and battery life. The detachable screen will connect to the phone via a USB Type-C port.

LG G8X ThinQ price
LG G8X ThinQ

LG G8X ThinQ price in India

LG G8 X Think with LG Dual Screen is priced at Rs 49,999. The device will be available in retail outlets across the country from December 21. The phone will be sold in Aurora Black color. Remember that the smartphone was launched at IFA 2019 in September.

LG G8X ThinQ Dual Screen specifications

The LG G8X Think has a 6.4-inch fullvision display. It has an in-display fingerprint sensor. The phone has a waterdrop notch at the top. It has a 32-megapixel selfie sensor. Camera Reflected Mode which will help in taking better portrait shots in low light.

LG G8X comes with a Think Dual Camera setup. There is a 12-megapixel primary camera sensor on the back side. It has a 13-megapixel secondary camera with super wide-angle lens. LG has given many software features to improve the camera performance of this smartphone.

Processor, RAM & Storage

Qualcomm's Snapdragon 855 processor is used in the phone. It has 6 GB RAM. This out of box runs on Android Pie. Its inbuilt storage will be 128 GB. If required, it will be possible to use microSD card up to 2 TB.

Battery, Charging & Others

The battery of LG G8X ThinQ is 4,000 mAh and it supports Qualcomm Quick Charge 3.0. The phone has two 1.2 W speakers.

The new LG G8X works with the ThinQ secondary display. The LG Dual Screen connects to the main device via a USB Type C connection. The size of the secondary display is the primary display. That is, it also has a 6.4-inch full-HD + screen. After adding the second display, this phone looks like a common foldable smartphone. Users can rotate the display 360 degrees with the help of a hinge. It has been promised that the phone comes with a strong build.

Vivo Y11 launched in India, Impressive features will be available in low price

China's smartphone company Vivo has launched its smartphone Vivo Y11 (Vivo Y11) in India. This phone of the company has been launched in Vietnam earlier. This phone has strong features such as high Aspect Ratio, Dual Camera Setup and Big Battery. Apart from this, this phone also fits in your budget.

Vivo Y11
Vivo Y11

Price and availability

Vivo has launched this phone in India with a price tag of Rs8,990. The sale of this phone will start on December 21. This phone will be available at all Vivo dealerships. This phone will be available in two color options Z Green and Coral Red.

Vivo Y11 specification

This budget phone from Vivo has a 6.35 inch Full HD+ display, which has a resolution of 1544 x 720p. This smartphone has been given the Octa-Core processor. This Vivo phone works on Android-based FunTouch OS 9.1 operating system.

Processor and camera

The phone works on Qualcomm Snapdragon 439 processor with 3GB of RAM. Dual rear camera setup has been given in the phone for photography, in which the primary sensor has been given 13 megapixels. Secondary camera is 2MP. The phone has an 8MP selfie sensor.

Connectivity

The phone has 32GB internal storage. For connectivity, the phone has 4G LTE, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth v4.0, GPS / A-GPS, Micro-USB and 3.5mm audio jack. This phone comes with a powerful 5000mAh battery. Talk about the measurements of the phone, the measurement of the phone is 159.43x76.77x8.92mm and the weight is 190 grams.

Samsung Galaxy A01 with 5.7-inch Infinity-V display, dual rear cameras announced

Samsung has announced budget smartphone Galaxy A01 which has 5.7 inch HD+ display, 2GB RAM, octa core snapdragon 439 SoC, android pie, 13+2mp rear cameras and 5mp front camera. The phone doesn't have fingerprint sensor but have face unlock.

Galaxy A01
Samsung Galaxy A01

Samsung Galaxy A01 Specifications
-5.7-inch (1520 × 720 pixels) HD+ Infinity-V display
-Octa-Core (Quad 1.95GHz + Quad 1.45GHz ) processor
-2GB RAM, 16GB Storage, expandable up to 512GB via micro SD card
-Android 9.0 (Pie) with Samsung One UI
-Dual SIM (nano + nano + microSD)
-13MP rear camera with LED flash, f/2.2 aperture, 2MP secondary camera with f/2.4 aperture
-5MP front camera with f/2.0 aperture
-Dimension:146.3 x 70.86 x 8.34mm
-3.5mm audio jack, FM Radio
Dual 4G VoLTE, Wi-Fi 802.11 b/g/n, Bluetooth 5, GPS + GLONASS
-3,000mAh battery

The Samsung Galaxy A01 comes in Black, Blue and Red colors. No details about the pricing or availability yet.

Vivo X30 and X30 Pro 5G with 6.44-inch FHD+ AMOLED display, Exynos 980, 32MP in-screen front camera announced

Vivo X30 Pro
Vivo X30 Pro

Vivo has announced their much awaited flagship phones X30 and X30 pro in China today. These phones packed with 6.44 inch full HD + amoled display with 32mp front camera in punch hole. 
                 These phones are powered by Samsung Exynos 980 with support for liquid cooling and runs on Android pie with FunTouch OS 10. Both these phones have glass back, in display fingerprint sensor and 4350mAh battery with support of 33W fast charging.
                  The X30 packs a 64MP main camera lens along with 8MP wide-angle lens and a 32MP portrait lens for 50mm equivalent full frame focal length, while the X30 Pro features an additional 13-megapixel periscope lens instead of the portrait lens for 5x loss-less zoom.
           
Vivo X30
Vivo X30

Vivo X30 and X30 Pro specifications

-6.44-inch (2400 × 1080 pixels) Full HD+ 20:9 Super AMOLED 2.5D curved glass display with 1200 nit brightness, 100% DCI-P3 color gamut
-2.2GHz Octa-Core Samsung Exynos 980 8nm processor with Adreno 612 GPU
-8GB LPDDR4x RAM, 128GB / 256GB UFS 2.1 storage
-Android 9.0 (Pie) with Funtouch OS 10
-Dual SIM (nano + nano)
-64MP primary camera with f/1.8 aperture, Dual LED flash + 8MP 120° ultra wide sensor with f/2.2 aperture, 32MP Portrait lens with f/2.0 aperture, 13MP Periscope lens for 5X Optical zoom, 10X digital zoom, f/3.0 aperture
-32MP front-facing camera with f/2.45 aperture
-In-display fingerprint sensor
-3.5 mm audio jack, FM Radio
-Dimensions: 74.10×158.45×8.80mm; Weight:196.5g
-5G SA/NSA, Dual 4G VoLTE, WiFi 802.11 ac dual-band, Bluetooth 5, GPS/GLONASS, USB Type-C
-4350mAh (typical) battery with 33W Fast charging

The Vivo X30 and X30 Pro come in Black, Blue and Pink colors. The X30 is priced at 3298 yuan (US$ 471 / Rs. 33,450 approx.) for the 8GB RAM with 128GB storage version, 8GB + 256GB costs 3598 yuan (US$ 514 / Rs. 36,490 approx.), X30 Pro 5G 8GB RAM with 128GB storage version is priced at 3998 yuan (US$ 571 / Rs. 40,550 approx.) and the 8GB + 256GB costs 4298 yuan US$ 614 / Rs. 43,590 approx.). These are now available for order and will be available from December 24 in China.

What is carburising

Thermochemical process in which carbon is diffused into the surface of low carbon steels to increase the carbon content to sufficient levels so that the surface will respond to heat treatment and produce a hard, wear-resistant layer is known as carburising. There are three types of carburising commonly used:

carburising
carburising

Gas carburising

In gas carburising, the component is held in a furnace containing an atmosphere of methane or propane with a neutral carrier gas, usually a mixture of N2, CO, CO2, H2 and CH4. At the carburising temperature, methane (or propane) decomposes at the component surface to atomic carbon and hydrogen, with the carbon diffusing into the surface. The temperature is typically 925°C and carburising times range from 2 hours for a 1mm depth case to a maximum of around 36 hours for a 4mm case. The quenching medium is usually oil, but can be water, brine, caustic soda or polymer.

Liquid carburising (or cyaniding)

Liquid or cyanide carburising is carried out by placing the component in a salt bath at a temperature of 845 to 955°C. The salt is usually a cyanide-chloride-carbonate mixture and is highly toxic. The cyanide salts introduce a small amount of nitrogen into the surface which further improves its hardness. Although the fastest carburising process, it is suitable only for small batch sizes.

Solid (pack) carburising

In solid or pack carburising, the components are surrounded by a carburising medium and placed in a sealed box. The medium is usually coke or charcoal mixed with barium carbonate. The process is really one of gas carburisation since the CO produced dissociates into CO2 and carbon which diffuses into the components' surface. Temperatures are usually 790 to 845°C for times of 2 to 36 hours. Pack carburising is the least sophisticated carburising process and as a result remains a widely used method.

Carbonitriding

Carbonitriding is undertaken on a similar range of steels although the bulk carbon content can be as high as 0.4 to 0.5%. The process is particularly suited for hardening the surface of components that need a through-hardened core, such as gears and shafts. Carbonitriding is a modification of gas carburisation where ammonia is added to the methane or propane and is the source of nitrogen.